09.08.2018 PWT 30-2018. Investigating a possible candidate for the Long Lost Clyde Daguerreotype (I)

On Long Lost Daguerreotypes

This conference* is an introduction to the more general project of an essay on lost daguerreotypes following the principles of classical bibliography, and William A. Jackson’s recommendation about lost books:

“We must recognize that despite all the work of the collectors of the past, a considerable portion of what once was printed no longer exists, and it is possible that the study of such lost books may become a recognized part of bibliographical work, just as the paleon­tologists are forced to reconstruct beasts whose bones they have never seen. Researches into books that have not survived may prove to be far more fruitful than at first seems possible.”

Roger Stoddard, former librarian of the Houghton library and author of the celebrated 1982 bibliography, Lost Books: American Poetry before 1821, strongly warned about the danger of wishful thinking:

“For bibliographers the most disheartening feature of such studies is the nature of the evidence. Contrary to the rules of bibliography, any source but a complete copy of the book is used. Old descriptions in in­ventories or catalogues, advertisements of booksellers or printers, and copyright entries are often unreliable and easily misinterpreted. No careful scholar presents data from such sources without warning his readers or before seeking verification elsewhere. Some writers have been tempted to embroider and fill out the data, fictionalizing printing his­tory while showing off their knowledge of it. Only if properly handled can such data yield useful results.

We can follow his path and adapt his advice to lost photographs. The most famous photographic subject on earth is probably Abraham Lincoln.  The temptation of impatient wishful thinking has misled several collectors, conservators, curators and auctionneers during the past 68 years, transforming the hunt into a mine field.

Since the early 1960s every portraits which could be of Lincoln has been searched, scrutinized, dozens of announcements have been made in the press, on rados and televisions. All families of people who had meet with Lincoln have been visited. Only three candidates, three purported portraits came to a large public knowledge in 1966, 1977 and 1998…

2017. An anonymous image unearthed during a busy New York photo fair, During the AIPAD Photo week, after having been offered for several months on internet. “The sitter is a Lincoln’s doppelganger” raised as a question. But this plate is a daguerreotype. Paradox: — How could a lincolnian portrait precede Lincoln changing appearance by growing a beard?

Access to the first article : PWT 30-2018 Long Lost Clyde Daguerreotype




The Copernican Revolution was the paradigm shift from the Ptolemaic model of the heavens, formulated by Nicolaus Copernic some time before 1514 and refined until the publishing of De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestium in 1543.


Copernican Armillary Sphere (France, circa 1840) 

Fifteen scores later, the Daguerreian Revolution was the paradigm shift from the classical representation of Nature and Human faces, formulated by Niépce some time before 1827 and refined by several gentlemen until the public announcement of 19 August 1839.


This Daguerrian portrait (circle of Robert Cornelius, Philadelphia, circa 1840)

When the first photographic processes were invented and developped by Niépce and his followers in Europe, the photographic portrait was really born in America circa 1840. Robert Cornelius in Philadelphia and John Draper are the central figures.


Quarter plate daguerreotype (circle of Johhn Draper, New York, circa 1840)

La Galerie du Palace invited French artist Lyes Hammadouche. Please come and visit his installation. The conjonction of rare daguerrian portraits from Europe and the Americas meet with the conjonction of planets of a vintage armil.


Planétaire copernicien (Copernican Armillary Sphere), France, circa 1840

The portrait session was a real adventure and often a unique event in each period of life (with the notable exception of the artists’ families). Some models have dramatically thwarted the operator’s efforts to capture the decisive moment.


Early daguerreian portrait of three children (Philadelphia, circa 1843)

This invention of Daguerrian portraiture accompanied the formation of the United States and the birth of American culture. The portrait below is contemporary of the youth of Mark Twain, author of Tom Sawyer’s adventures.


Sixth plate daguerreotype (W. V. Prentice, Savannah, Georgia, circa 1855)




Avant Thomas d’Aquin, Evagre le Pontique énumère les idées concupiscibles et irascibles qui donneront les intitulés des sept péchés capitaux :

Gourmandise, criminels identifiés par des morsures gourmandes
Avarice, les accumulations de Landru
Luxure, 20 000 femmes tondues lors de l’épuration à la Libération
Paresse, jarretelles tatouées sur des mollets poilus
Colère, affaire Secula, couteau de vannier
Envie, une bande de dévaliseurs de boutiques
Orgueil, Paul Ferdonnet, autoportrait ithyphallique

(Paul Ferdonnet, rédacteur des bulletins de Radio Humanité, 1939)


PWT 28-2018 Seven Deadly Sins

19.07.2018 P. Weekly Transmission 27-2018 presents: Giacomo Caneva, the Roman School of Photography and the early history of photography in China

Giacomo Caneva was born at Padua on the 4th of July 1813 of Giuseppe Caneva and Anna Pavan. There were four other children, Antonio, Giovanni, Camillo and Teresa, who died as a child. The father was well-to-do, and was the owner of the “Albergo al Principe Carlo” in Prato della Valle. Caneva left Padua on the 12th of November 1834 to register at the Regia Accademia di Belle Arti at Venice (Royal Academy of Fine Arts) where, in particular, he followed the School of the Perspective of Tranquillo Orsi. Here he qualified as a “perspective painter” and widened his knowledge of the camera obscura, which he used in his paintings.
In 1840, Caneva moved to Rome with Giuseppe Jappelli (1783-1851), called by Prince Alessandro Torlonia for the arrangement of greenery in the southern area of Villa Torlonia in Rome…

… His innate inclination for novelty awakened an interest in photography immediately after its invention. He began his photographic career as a daguerreotypist, according to notes left by his friend Tommaso Cuccioni, who later became a photographer himself. However, as things stand at present, his daguerreotypes cannot be individualized. He is recorded in the famous list of artists’ addresses which was begun at the Caffé Greco in 1845: “G. Caneva. Painter and Photographer, Via Sistina 100,” and then, “Via del Corso 446. near S. Carlo.” …

… Many calotypes of Giacomo Caneva were printed after his death by his friend Ludovico Tuminello who returned to Rome in 1869 after a long exile. Tuminello wrote captions on Caneva’s paper negatives and sold albumen prints with his own captions and name and this, before it was understood, created considerable confusion in the recent years…

… In 2012, some dozens of original photos of Caneva, taken during his 1859 trip to China, have appeared on the market of antiques photos, which were believed to be completely lost…


12.07.2018 PWT 26-2018 History of Political Party Funding : The 1907 Tiflis Bank Robbery

The 1907 Tiflis Bank Robbery, also known as the Yerevan Square Expropriation was an armed robbery on 26 June 1907 in the city of Tiflis in the Tiflis Governorate in the Caucasus Viceroyalty of the Russian Empire (now Georgia’s capital, Tbilisi). A bank cash shipment was stolen by Bolsheviks to fund their revolutionary activities. The robbers attacked a bank stagecoach and surrounding police and military using bombs and guns while the stagecoach was transporting money through Yerevan Square (now Freedom Square) between the post office and the Tiflis branch of the State Bank of the Russian Empire. The attack killed forty people and injured fifty others, according to official archive documents. The robbers escaped with 341,000 rubles (equivalent to around US 3.86 million in 2017).

The robbery was organized by a number of top-level Bolsheviks, including Vladimir Lenin, Joseph Stalin, Maxim Litvinov, Leonid Krasin, and Alexander Bogdanov, and executed by a party of revolutionaries led by Stalin’s early associate Ter-Petrosian (Kamo).

The RSDLP, the predecessor to the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, was formed in 1898. The goal of the RSDLP was to carry out a Marxist proletarian revolution against the Russian Empire. As part of their revolutionary activity, the RSDLP and other revolutionary groups (such as anarchists and Socialist Revolutionaries) practised a range of militant operations, including “expropriations”, a euphemism for armed robberies of government or private funds to support revolutionary activities.



Mysterious Marshall Milton Miller

“Miller is becoming increasingly recognised as one of the key figures in early Chinese photography, even though almost nothing is known about him or his career. Although little of his landscape work has yet been identi­fied. the genre portraits he took are celebrated for their often jarring intensity and also for the apparent empathy he felt for his Chinese sitters …” (Encyclopedia of 19th Century Photography)

“Thanks to Terry Bennett’s archival research, we now know that Milton Miller, also known as Marshall M. Miller, was born in Dummerston, Vermont, in 1830. After he died in 1899, an obituary in the Vermont Phoenix provided information about his life before and after his commercial adventure in China from 1860 to 1863. ” (Wu Hung, Zooming In: Histories of Photography in China)


21.06.2018 PWT 21-2018. Le Dilemme du gendarme : Les Encombrants Voyageurs

Le Dilemme du prisonnier et le dilemme du gendarme

“Le dilemme du prisonnier, énoncé en 1950 par Albert W. Tucker à Princeton, caractérise en théorie des jeux une situation où deux joueurs auraient intérêt à coopérer, mais où, en l’absence de communication entre les deux joueurs, chacun choisira de trahir l’autre si le jeu n’est joué qu’une fois. La raison est que si l’un coopère et que l’autre trahit, le coopérateur est fortement pénalisé. Pourtant, si les deux joueurs trahissent, le résultat leur est moins favorable que si les deux avaient choisi de coopérer.

Le dilemme du prisonnier est souvent évoqué dans des domaines comme l’économie, la biologie, la politique internationale, la psychologie, le traitement médiatique de la rumeur, et même l’émergence de règles morales dans des communautés.

Il a donné naissance à des jeux d’économie expérimentale testant la rationalité économique des joueurs et leur capacité à identifier l’équilibre de Nash d’un jeu.” (Wikipedia)

La théorie des jeux scrute et analyse les comportements des administrés bien plus que ceux des administrateurs et de leurs gardiens.

Riondel. “Tzigane retenu prisonnier à Moillesulaz, il défend à un journaliste de la photographier”. Frontière Franco-Suisse, 1906.  Épreuve aristotype d’époque, 78×103 mm, légendée et créditée au crayon au verso

PWT 24-2018 Encombrants voyageurs

14.06.2018 PWT 23-2018 Who Are You, M. Giroux?

Weekly transmission 23-2018 presents:

André Giroux peintre-photographe and silent partner of his brother Alphonse Junior — Weekly Drawing by Théophile Bouchet: “Maison Alphonse Giroux”  — Giroux Family Portraits — An elegant fake factory: It is permitted for one month to make copies from the originals — Transmission from Alphonse the Elder to Alphonse the Younger before the Daguerre agreement …

[Potonniée in 1925 suggested Alphonse Giroux the Elder had family link with Mrs. Daguerre, but this should not be taken literally.Historians will look better at the history of Paris Free-Masons in relation with the proclamation of the discovery of photography in 1839. Twelve or fourteen years later, André Giroux will start his personal photographic activity and his first portraits indicate that he kept links with Nadar and Ziegler and his daughter will marry Gustave Rouland.Nevertheless, Daguerre prefered to partner with an honorable house in a fashionable neighborhood (recently Louvre des Antiquaires) than with technicians even if more legitimate inventors (Charles Chevalier)…]

PWT 23-2018 Giroux and Co


“After the forming of the National Constituent Assembly, LaFayette helped write the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, with Thomas Jefferson’s assistance; inspired by the United States Declaration of Independence, this document invoked natural law to establish basic principles of the democratic nation-state. In keeping with the philosophy of natural liberty, Lafayette also advocated for the end of slavery.

After the storming of the Bastille, Lafayette was appointed commander-in-chief of the National Guard and tried to steer a middle course through the French Revolution…

As leader of the National Guard, Lafayette attempted to maintain order and steer a middle ground, even as the radicals gained increasing influence…”

La Fayette et Mme de Staël – à propos d’une correspondance inédite

“La Fayette ! Madame de Staël ! Deux noms qui appartiennent à la même période de notre histoire et que cependant on n’a point l’habitude de voir associés. C’est que le héros de l’indépendance américaine et l’auteur de Corinne n’ont jamais participé à une action commune et ont mené deux vies très différentes. Semblable a été néanmoins en ceci leur destinée, que, depuis qu’ils ont disparu de la scène du monde, la popularité de leur mémoire a connu de singulières vicissitudes. Avant de publier un certain nombre de lettres du général à Mme de Staël, qui ne paraîtront pas, je l’espère, dénuées d’intérêt et qui font honneur à tous deux, je voudrais rechercher les causes de ces vicissitudes.

La popularité de La Fayette est depuis quelques années en recrudescence, mais c’est à l’Amérique qu’il le doit…”

((Paul-Gabriel Othenin de Cléron, comte d’Haussonville, Revue des Deux Mondes, 1921)

Texte integral en ligne : https://fr.m.wikisource.org/wiki/La_Fayette_et_Madame_de_Staël

PWT 22-2018 Lafayette Nous Voila

While reading the PWT, you can listen to a song, quite popular during those days and which updet the aristocrats:

AH ! ÇA IRA, ÇA IRA, ÇA IRA ! Edith Piaf singing (Youtube) :

27.05.2018 You could not crash in the party last Saturday ? … Please join us at Bloomsbury Holyday Inn next Sunday

“… and so, at last, to the festivities of today, when Markle was hitched to her true love—her true true love, forever and ever—at St. George’s Chapel, Windsor. Third time lucky. The heavens above were of an unfamiliar blue. Ever since Elizabeth II was crowned under soaking skies, the pact between good news and bad weather has been a matter of national pride, yet here we were, suffused with warmth—an event so rare that it was greeted by Amal Clooney in a dress of liquefied sunshine. Her husband’s suit, to judge by its tint of shimmering gray, had been woven from the same material as his beard. Oprah Winfrey was in pink and continued to radiate satisfaction, despite the fact that, having turned up promptly at a quarter to ten, she had to occupy her spot in the knights’ stalls of the chapel (not the coziest of perches) for two and a quarter hours before the main event. So contagious were “the atmospherics,” as one member of the palace staff described them, that even Victoria Beckham was affected. She didn’t actually smile, but there were several moments when it looked as if she might.

The surrounding mood was of a buoyancy not seen since the London Olympics in 2012. Ordinary citizens initiated conversations of their own free will rather than, as custom dictates, either waiting for their dogs to sniff each other or deciding not to speak at all. More than two thousand members of the public had been invited onto the castle grounds and were guaranteed a clear view of the proceedings. The invitation was, in part, a vote of thanks for services rendered. One such guest, Helen Mack, had worked in the hospice movement for thirty years, providing care for the terminally ill; another spectator, Cavita Chapman, is not only a senior manager in the treatment of mental health—a cause to which Harry has lent outspoken support—but, as I learned, an expert on the insanely complex plot of “Suits.” Chapman was crisp in her assessment of the real-life couple, expecting great things of Meghan (“She’s a feminist”) and the Prince—“Harry’s always been, you know, ‘Why not?’ ” Put together, Chapman said, “Both of them will change the world.”(Anthony Lane, The New Yorker)       Read more »

Claude-Marie Ferrier (1811-1889)
Windsor Castle and Town Skyline, 1851
Salt paper print from an albumen glass negative 

27th May 2018, 10am – 4pm

With thousands of rare, unique and unusual finds at every event, The London Photograph Fair is the meeting place for vintage photography dealers, collectors, curators and connoisseurs – since 1982

Venue: Bloomsbury Holiday Inn, Coram Street, London WC1N 1HT
Date & Hours: Sunday 27th May 2018, 10am – 4pm

Russell Square (1 min walk) / St. Pancras Station (7-10 min walk)

10.05.2018 PWT 19-2018 THE KING WHO WOULD BE A MAN

Alexander Pavlovitch, The King Who Would Be Just A Man

In the first written epic of humanity, Gilgamesh, after having conquered half the world, after having known and overcome the most terrible hardships and amassed all known treasures, Gilgamesh, the first historical king, plans to renounce all this to enjoy a peaceful life.

Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, was only 56 when he abdicated and sought the peace of a monastery in September 1556. He retired to the secluded Monastery of Yuste in Extremadura living alone with clocks lining every wall, which some historians believe were symbols of his reign and his lack of time.

Since 1825, many people in Russia and elsewhere believe that Tsar Alexander I after defeating Napoleon and reigning over much of the emerged lands aspired to a contemplative and traveling life. Not only Tolstoi but his main biographer, General Schilder, described the possible staging of his own death in Taganrog, Azov Sea port thousands of miles from St. Petersburg. The discreet departure to the Holy Land on Lord Loftus’ yacht, then his return in 1837 to Siberia with the long beard of a holy man. The last five peaceful years of his Siberian life under the name of Fedor Koznich in an isba near Tomsk or members of the imperial family do not fail to visit him and to dedicate a particular devotion to him.

PWT 19-2018 Imperial Mystery

06.05.2018 PWT 18-2018 Port Famine, A Tragedy Without Pictures

Weekly transmission 18-2018 presents:

Pedro Sarmiento de Gamboa (1532–1592) was a Spanish explorer …

Fortifying the Strait and closing the loop of the Columbian exchange …

Fondation de deux villes dans le détroit de Magellan au XVIe siècle 

Weekly drawing by Théophile Bouchet: “Closing the loop

Two unpublished drawings by Wilhelm Heine who crossed the Strait 

PWT 18-2018 Port-Famine

Pedro Sarmiento de Gamboa (1532–1592) was a Spanish explorer,

author, historian, mathematician, astronomer, and scientist. His birthplace is not certain… In 1555 he began his exploring career, sailing across the Atlantic Ocean. His first destination was New Spain (in what is today Mexico), where he lived for two years. Little is known of this period in his life, other than that he encountered difficulties with the Inquisition. He then sailed to Peru, where he lived for more than twenty years, gaining a reputation as a navigator.
In Lima he was accused by the Inquisition of possessing two magic rings and some magic ink and of following the precepts of Moses. He then joined Álvaro de Mendaña’s expedition through the southern Pacific Ocean to find the Terra Australis Incognita, which, should Mendaña have followed Sarmiento’s indications, had reached New Zealand or/and Australia; but they discovered the Solomon Islands instead, in 1568. The expedition failed to find gold and attempts at establishing a settlement in the Solomon Islands ended in failure. In order to take credit for the discoveries for himself Mendaña threw the journals and maps made by Pedro Sarmiento de Gamboa overboard and abandoned him in Mexico. However, a trial was then held in Lima, with the result giving Sarmiento credit for the discoveries.
Continuer la lecture de « 06.05.2018 PWT 18-2018 Port Famine, A Tragedy Without Pictures »

26.04.2018 PWT 17-2018 Powerful Images of the Liberation of Paris

“The Liberation of Paris on Aug. 25, 1944, evokes powerful images: men and women firing at German tanks from behind barricades, girls in flowery dresses embracing arriving French and American soldiers, General de Gaulle proclaiming with no little chutzpah that Paris had liberated itself. How could Parisians not be celebrating? After 50 months of German occupation, their war was over…” (Alan Riding, France’s Troubled Liberation, International New York Times, 08/25/2014 ).

Aug. 26, 1944, de Gaulle was making his official entry into the capital…*
Few things had rankled more with the French leader that summer than the failure of Washing­ton and London to recognize his Provisional Government as the Government of France. His nightmare was of being caught between the Scylla of AMGOT (Allied Military Government of Occupied Territories) and the Charybdis of a Communist‐run commune. He was determined Paris’s liberation should be largely a French gesture under his leadership, and he intended to install himself in the city as soon as it was free, with or without his allies’ blessing.

Suite sur le pdf : PWT 17-2018 Liberation of Paris

16.04.2018 LE SOUPER (Monday 23 April 2018 Dinner Party)

Le Souper du lundi 23 avril :

Full Menu:

First Course:
Goat Cheese Gateau
Tomato Jam
Buttermilk Biscuit Crumbles Young Variegated Lettuces

Main Course:
Rack of Spring Lamb
Burnt Cipollini Soubise Carolina Gold Rice Jambalava

Nectarine Tart
Crème Fraîche Ice Cream

East view of mansion at Mount Vernon (Lincoln Financial Foundation Collection, Allen County Public Library, Fort Wayne, Indiana)

About the portraits:
Xue-Lan-Se (born 2004)
The Candidate, 2017
El Muro, 2017
Photo ceramic impressions on aluminium (Fotalux), 30×30 cm
Unbreakable, indestructible, convenient for all outside walls,
each one of an edition of 7 numbered signed copies. each 400 US $


Musick has Charms to sooth a savage Breast,
To soften Rocks, or bend a knotted Oak.
I’ve read, that things inanimate have mov’d,
And, as with living Souls, have been inform’d,
By Magick Numbers and persuasive Sound.
What then am I? Am I more senseless grown
Than Trees, or Flint? O force of constant Woe!
‘Tis not in Harmony to calm my Griefs.
Anselmo sleeps, and is at Peace; last Night
The silent Tomb receiv’d the good Old King;
He and his Sorrows now are safely lodg’d
Within its cold, but hospitable Bosom.
Why am not I at Peace?

William Congreve, The Mourning Bride, 1697


In 1946, a young French war correspondent photographer …
seduced by his stopover in Tahiti, when he returned to France from Indochina, chose to settle in Punaauia. Adolphe Sylvain, a public works engineer by training, has just participated in the Libération de Paris as a tank driver in General Leclerc’s 2nd DB. He took the opportunity to fix some of the famous photos of the liberation with his Rolleiflex.

Continuer la lecture de « 12.04.2017 PWT 15-2018 LA MUSIQUE ADOUCIT LES MŒURS – CHARMS TO SOOTH A SAVAGE BREAST »

05.04.2018 PWT 14-2018 NEGRE’S NEGATIVES

“In photography, a negative is an image in which the lightest areas of the photographed subject appear darkest and the darkest areas appear lightest. This reversed order occurs because the extremely light-sensitive chemicals used to capture an image quickly enough for ordinary picture-taking are darkened, rather than bleached, by exposure to light and subsequent photographic processing.Negatives were once commonly made on a thin sheet of glass rather than a plastic film, and some of the earliest negatives were made on paper.

PWT 14-2018 Negre Negatives

15.04.2018 Il y a 75 ans, quelques images prises dans le camp de Bergen-Belsen en avril 1943

Ces photographies datent d’avril 1943, un officier sovietique croise des prisonniers juifs et réalise ces clichés. Leur nature est singulière et on ne connait toujours presque aucune photographie de l’époque de l’Aktion Reinhard.

Une légende au crayon en russe au verso précise sobrement : “on vient d’enlever ses enfants à une mère”.


Bergen-Belsen, parfois appelé Belsen, était un camp de concentration nazi situé au sud-ouest de la ville de Bergen, près de la localité de Belsen, à une dizaine de kilomètres au nord-ouest de la ville de Celle, en Basse-Saxe (Allemagne), dans la lande de Lunebourg.

D’abord camp de travailleurs, camp d’entraînement de la Wehrmacht, puis dépôt de matériel et d’armes, il est transformé en camp d’internement de prisonniers de guerre à partir de 1940, d’abord des prisonniers de guerre français et belges puis est agrandi en vue de la guerre contre l’URSS et accueille à partir de l’été 1941 plus de 20 000 prisonniers soviétiques.

À partir de mai 1941, il abrite le stalag 311 (XI C). En juillet 1941, il y a déjà 20 000 prisonniers de guerre soviétiques qui ne sont pas internés dans des baraquements, mais internés en plein air. Les cinq baraques en pierre ne sont pas encore construites. Jusqu’au début de l’année 1942, sur les 18 000 prisonniers de guerre soviétiques encore présents, 14 000 moururent de froid, de faim et de maladie. Les prisonniers soviétiques restants sont éliminés ou déportés ailleurs en avril 1943, tandis que les Français sont transférés à Fallingbostel.

Le camp est alors transformé en camp d’échange (1943-1944), où sont regroupés notamment des Juifs possédant une nationalité de pays neutre comme des Turcs ou des Espagnols de Salonique, des Juifs avec des papiers sud-américains, des Polonais à double nationalité, des Juifs « palestiniens », des femmes françaises de prisonniers de guerre et leurs enfants, venus de Drancy en mai et juillet 1944, qui sont au camp de l’étoile.

Peu de Juifs seront libérés : 222 peuvent émigrer en Palestine, 1 683 juifs hongrois peuvent gagner la Suisse.

Les conditions s’aggravent avec l’arrivée de nombreux prisonniers transférés des camps d’Auschwitz, Buchenwald, Ravensbrück, Flossenburg, Mauthausen… devant l’avance des armées alliées. Le camp compte 15 000 détenus en novembre 1944 et 60 000 en avril 1945.

Avec le surpeuplement, la désorganisation, les épidémies, la mortalité y est très forte. Les Juifs d’échange du camp de l’étoile, du camp des Hongrois, du camp des neutres et du camp spécial, sont évacués par 3 trains pour Theresienstadt. Le troisième train, « le transport perdu », arrive près de Tröbitz en Saxe le 23 avril. Il est libéré par l’Armée rouge.Le camp est libéré par les troupes britanniques le 15 avril 1945. La mortalité reste toutefois élevée en raison d’une épidémie de typhus que les Britanniques ne peuvent circonscrire rapidement faute de moyens et faute d’avoir perçu immédiatement l’ampleur du problème. Le camp est finalement mis en quarantaine et les baraques brûlées. Les cadavres sont ensevelis dans des fosses communes.

Environ 70 000 personnes y ont trouvé la mort, dont 20 000 prisonniers soviétiques. Parmi les victimes, Anne Frank et sa grande sœur Margot Frank, toutes les deux atteintes du typhus, ainsi que deux anciens députés français : Claude Jordery, mort le 9 février, et Augustin Malroux, le 10 avril. (d’après wikipedia)



28.03.2018 PWT 13-2018 Back to the Cold War ?

Glavsevmorput’ or the Discrete Charm of Soviet Acronyms

“Glavnoe upravlenie Severnogo morskogo puti”, also known as Glavsevmorput or ГУСМП, was a Soviet government organization in charge of the maritime Northern Sea Route, established in January 1932. “The organization employed 35,000 men scattered all over Arctic, overall management was assigned to the Arctic explorer Otto Schmidt, who had previously managed the Arctic Institute. Glavsevmorput had its own Polar Air service Aviaarktika, headed by Mark Shevelev.Glavsevmorput aimed to contribute to the development of northern coastal Siberia; the office was empowered to establish seaports, conduct extensive research, and trade with the United States and Japan as was necessary to its principal function.

“Joseph Stalin came to power in Russia in 1929. By 1933 his campaign to bolster patriotic morale and to cover up his determined effort to eliminate any dissent was in full swing. Posters, parades, broadcasts and newsreels all focused on the accomplishments of the Stalin socialist state. Perhaps his favorite theme centered on the rapidly evolving aviation sector and the people engaged in new and exciting developments. To this end he flung Russian airplane designers and pilots into the competition to capture flight records. And by 1938 Russia had claimed some 68 records for distance, altitude, and various “firsts.”

One of the more spectacular ones was a 6300-mile polar flight of N025 from Moscow to San Jacinto, California, in early 1937, the precedent to likely ordering that a larger aircraft with crew and cargo replicate that feat.
Access to the pdf: PWT 13-2018 Glavsevmorput

23.03.2018 PWT 12-2018 Thirteen Fragile Original Gelatin Relief Matrices from Galerie Contemporaine

“Portraits were printed in woodburytype, a fully continuous tone photomechanical process using carbon black, superbly stable from light fading. This process required negative lead matrices, filled with hot, gelatin-based, pigmented ink. A goodquality india ink was used to produce black images. Woodburytype images were also printed in dark-brown, brown, or purple-brown colors resembling gold-toned albumen photographs in which black was mixed with red pigments” (cf. Stulik& Kaplan, Woodburytype, CCI).

The lead mold, the negative matrix needed a positive matrix: a gelatin relief matrix like those. A high-power hydraulic press was used to press the gelatin matrix into some smooth, perfectly leveled plate of lead, forming then one, two, three negative lead matrices (molds). After a solution of gelatin, albumen, sugar, and ammonium dichromate was dried, it was exposed to sunlight under a glass negative of Nadar or Carjat.

Continuer la lecture de « 23.03.2018 PWT 12-2018 Thirteen Fragile Original Gelatin Relief Matrices from Galerie Contemporaine »