Modern researchers have interpreted the parable as permitting tax resistance.
These researchers claim Jesus was referring to Caesar as Mammon, god of money, because it was Caesar who claimed to be a god on his tax coin — the god of money.
The fragmentary Egerton Papyrus reads:
“ They come to him and interrogate him as a way of putting him to the test.
They ask — Teacher Jesus, we know that you have come from God, for what you do testifies beyond all the prophets. Therefore tell us, is it lawful to pay to kings the things which benefit their rule? Shall we pay them or not?
Jesus knew what they were up to, and became indignant.
Then he said to them, — Why do you call me teacher with your mouth, not doing what I say?
Well did Isaiah prophesy concerning you, saying: ‘This people honor me with their lips, but their heart is far from me. And in vain they worship me, teaching as their doctrines the precepts of men…'”