The 1907 Tiflis Bank Robbery, also known as the Yerevan Square Expropriation was an armed robbery on 26 June 1907 in the city of Tiflis in the Tiflis Governorate in the Caucasus Viceroyalty of the Russian Empire (now Georgia’s capital, Tbilisi). A bank cash shipment was stolen by Bolsheviks to fund their revolutionary activities. The robbers attacked a bank stagecoach and surrounding police and military using bombs and guns while the stagecoach was transporting money through Yerevan Square (now Freedom Square) between the post office and the Tiflis branch of the State Bank of the Russian Empire. The attack killed forty people and injured fifty others, according to official archive documents. The robbers escaped with 341,000 rubles (equivalent to around US 3.86 million in 2017).
The robbery was organized by a number of top-level Bolsheviks, including Vladimir Lenin, Joseph Stalin, Maxim Litvinov, Leonid Krasin, and Alexander Bogdanov, and executed by a party of revolutionaries led by Stalin’s early associate Ter-Petrosian (Kamo).
The RSDLP, the predecessor to the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, was formed in 1898. The goal of the RSDLP was to carry out a Marxist proletarian revolution against the Russian Empire. As part of their revolutionary activity, the RSDLP and other revolutionary groups (such as anarchists and Socialist Revolutionaries) practised a range of militant operations, including “expropriations”, a euphemism for armed robberies of government or private funds to support revolutionary activities.
Mysterious Marshall Milton Miller
“Miller is becoming increasingly recognised as one of the key figures in early Chinese photography, even though almost nothing is known about him or his career. Although little of his landscape work has yet been identified. the genre portraits he took are celebrated for their often jarring intensity and also for the apparent empathy he felt for his Chinese sitters …” (Encyclopedia of 19th Century Photography)
“Thanks to Terry Bennett’s archival research, we now know that Milton Miller, also known as Marshall M. Miller, was born in Dummerston, Vermont, in 1830. After he died in 1899, an obituary in the Vermont Phoenix provided information about his life before and after his commercial adventure in China from 1860 to 1863. ” (Wu Hung, Zooming In: Histories of Photography in China)
PWT 25-2018 CHINESE HISTORY OF PHOTOGRAPHY. MILTON MILLER
Le Dilemme du prisonnier et le dilemme du gendarme
“Le dilemme du prisonnier, énoncé en 1950 par Albert W. Tucker à Princeton, caractérise en théorie des jeux une situation où deux joueurs auraient intérêt à coopérer, mais où, en l’absence de communication entre les deux joueurs, chacun choisira de trahir l’autre si le jeu n’est joué qu’une fois. La raison est que si l’un coopère et que l’autre trahit, le coopérateur est fortement pénalisé. Pourtant, si les deux joueurs trahissent, le résultat leur est moins favorable que si les deux avaient choisi de coopérer.
Le dilemme du prisonnier est souvent évoqué dans des domaines comme l’économie, la biologie, la politique internationale, la psychologie, le traitement médiatique de la rumeur, et même l’émergence de règles morales dans des communautés.
Il a donné naissance à des jeux d’économie expérimentale testant la rationalité économique des joueurs et leur capacité à identifier l’équilibre de Nash d’un jeu.” (Wikipedia)
La théorie des jeux scrute et analyse les comportements des administrés bien plus que ceux des administrateurs et de leurs gardiens.
Riondel. “Tzigane retenu prisonnier à Moillesulaz, il défend à un journaliste de la photographier”. Frontière Franco-Suisse, 1906. Épreuve aristotype d’époque, 78×103 mm, légendée et créditée au crayon au verso
PWT 24-2018 Encombrants voyageurs
“After the forming of the National Constituent Assembly, LaFayette helped write the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, with Thomas Jefferson’s assistance; inspired by the United States Declaration of Independence, this document invoked natural law to establish basic principles of the democratic nation-state. In keeping with the philosophy of natural liberty, Lafayette also advocated for the end of slavery.
After the storming of the Bastille, Lafayette was appointed commander-in-chief of the National Guard and tried to steer a middle course through the French Revolution…
As leader of the National Guard, Lafayette attempted to maintain order and steer a middle ground, even as the radicals gained increasing influence…”
La Fayette et Mme de Staël – à propos d’une correspondance inédite
“La Fayette ! Madame de Staël ! Deux noms qui appartiennent à la même période de notre histoire et que cependant on n’a point l’habitude de voir associés. C’est que le héros de l’indépendance américaine et l’auteur de Corinne n’ont jamais participé à une action commune et ont mené deux vies très différentes. Semblable a été néanmoins en ceci leur destinée, que, depuis qu’ils ont disparu de la scène du monde, la popularité de leur mémoire a connu de singulières vicissitudes. Avant de publier un certain nombre de lettres du général à Mme de Staël, qui ne paraîtront pas, je l’espère, dénuées d’intérêt et qui font honneur à tous deux, je voudrais rechercher les causes de ces vicissitudes.
La popularité de La Fayette est depuis quelques années en recrudescence, mais c’est à l’Amérique qu’il le doit…”
((Paul-Gabriel Othenin de Cléron, comte d’Haussonville, Revue des Deux Mondes, 1921)
Texte integral en ligne : https://fr.m.wikisource.org/wiki/La_Fayette_et_Madame_de_Staël
PWT 22-2018 Lafayette Nous Voila
While reading the PWT, you can listen to a song, quite popular during those days and which updet the aristocrats:
AH ! ÇA IRA, ÇA IRA, ÇA IRA ! Edith Piaf singing (Youtube) :
“… and so, at last, to the festivities of today, when Markle was hitched to her true love—her true true love, forever and ever—at St. George’s Chapel, Windsor. Third time lucky. The heavens above were of an unfamiliar blue. Ever since Elizabeth II was crowned under soaking skies, the pact between good news and bad weather has been a matter of national pride, yet here we were, suffused with warmth—an event so rare that it was greeted by Amal Clooney in a dress of liquefied sunshine. Her husband’s suit, to judge by its tint of shimmering gray, had been woven from the same material as his beard. Oprah Winfrey was in pink and continued to radiate satisfaction, despite the fact that, having turned up promptly at a quarter to ten, she had to occupy her spot in the knights’ stalls of the chapel (not the coziest of perches) for two and a quarter hours before the main event. So contagious were “the atmospherics,” as one member of the palace staff described them, that even Victoria Beckham was affected. She didn’t actually smile, but there were several moments when it looked as if she might.
The surrounding mood was of a buoyancy not seen since the London Olympics in 2012. Ordinary citizens initiated conversations of their own free will rather than, as custom dictates, either waiting for their dogs to sniff each other or deciding not to speak at all. More than two thousand members of the public had been invited onto the castle grounds and were guaranteed a clear view of the proceedings. The invitation was, in part, a vote of thanks for services rendered. One such guest, Helen Mack, had worked in the hospice movement for thirty years, providing care for the terminally ill; another spectator, Cavita Chapman, is not only a senior manager in the treatment of mental health—a cause to which Harry has lent outspoken support—but, as I learned, an expert on the insanely complex plot of “Suits.” Chapman was crisp in her assessment of the real-life couple, expecting great things of Meghan (“She’s a feminist”) and the Prince—“Harry’s always been, you know, ‘Why not?’ ” Put together, Chapman said, “Both of them will change the world.”(Anthony Lane, The New Yorker) Read more »
Claude-Marie Ferrier (1811-1889)
Windsor Castle and Town Skyline, 1851
Salt paper print from an albumen glass negative
JOIN US AT THE LONDON PHOTOGRAPH FAIR – THIS SUNDAY!
27th May 2018, 10am – 4pm
With thousands of rare, unique and unusual finds at every event, The London Photograph Fair is the meeting place for vintage photography dealers, collectors, curators and connoisseurs – since 1982
LOCATION & TIMES
Venue: Bloomsbury Holiday Inn, Coram Street, London WC1N 1HT
Date & Hours: Sunday 27th May 2018, 10am – 4pm
Russell Square (1 min walk) / St. Pancras Station (7-10 min walk)
Le Souper du lundi 23 avril :
Goat Cheese Gateau
Buttermilk Biscuit Crumbles Young Variegated Lettuces
Rack of Spring Lamb
Burnt Cipollini Soubise Carolina Gold Rice Jambalava
Crème Fraîche Ice Cream
East view of mansion at Mount Vernon (Lincoln Financial Foundation Collection, Allen County Public Library, Fort Wayne, Indiana)
About the portraits:
Xue-Lan-Se (born 2004)
The Candidate, 2017
El Muro, 2017
Photo ceramic impressions on aluminium (Fotalux), 30×30 cm
Unbreakable, indestructible, convenient for all outside walls,
each one of an edition of 7 numbered signed copies. each 400 US $
Musick has Charms to sooth a savage Breast,
To soften Rocks, or bend a knotted Oak.
I’ve read, that things inanimate have mov’d,
And, as with living Souls, have been inform’d,
By Magick Numbers and persuasive Sound.
What then am I? Am I more senseless grown
Than Trees, or Flint? O force of constant Woe!
‘Tis not in Harmony to calm my Griefs.
Anselmo sleeps, and is at Peace; last Night
The silent Tomb receiv’d the good Old King;
He and his Sorrows now are safely lodg’d
Within its cold, but hospitable Bosom.
Why am not I at Peace?
William Congreve, The Mourning Bride, 1697
SYLVAIN, PHOTOGRAPHE DE TAHITI
In 1946, a young French war correspondent photographer …
seduced by his stopover in Tahiti, when he returned to France from Indochina, chose to settle in Punaauia. Adolphe Sylvain, a public works engineer by training, has just participated in the Libération de Paris as a tank driver in General Leclerc’s 2nd DB. He took the opportunity to fix some of the famous photos of the liberation with his Rolleiflex.
Continuer la lecture de « 12.04.2017 PWT 15-2018 LA MUSIQUE ADOUCIT LES MŒURS – CHARMS TO SOOTH A SAVAGE BREAST »
“In photography, a negative is an image in which the lightest areas of the photographed subject appear darkest and the darkest areas appear lightest. This reversed order occurs because the extremely light-sensitive chemicals used to capture an image quickly enough for ordinary picture-taking are darkened, rather than bleached, by exposure to light and subsequent photographic processing.Negatives were once commonly made on a thin sheet of glass rather than a plastic film, and some of the earliest negatives were made on paper.
PWT 14-2018 Negre Negatives
“Portraits were printed in woodburytype, a fully continuous tone photomechanical process using carbon black, superbly stable from light fading. This process required negative lead matrices, filled with hot, gelatin-based, pigmented ink. A goodquality india ink was used to produce black images. Woodburytype images were also printed in dark-brown, brown, or purple-brown colors resembling gold-toned albumen photographs in which black was mixed with red pigments” (cf. Stulik& Kaplan, Woodburytype, CCI).
The lead mold, the negative matrix needed a positive matrix: a gelatin relief matrix like those. A high-power hydraulic press was used to press the gelatin matrix into some smooth, perfectly leveled plate of lead, forming then one, two, three negative lead matrices (molds). After a solution of gelatin, albumen, sugar, and ammonium dichromate was dried, it was exposed to sunlight under a glass negative of Nadar or Carjat.
Continuer la lecture de « 23.03.2018 PWT 12-2018 Thirteen Fragile Original Gelatin Relief Matrices from Galerie Contemporaine »
Two thousand years of impressions
Two thousand years of paper, two thousand years of impressions, two thousand years of destruction, with two main processes: the paper can move to the text (Eastern tradition) or the text can move to the paper (Western tradition).
In China, the stone or the block (matrix) is fixed firmly on a table. The printer takes a round horsehair inking brush and applies ink with a vertical motion. The paper is then laid on the block and rubbed with a long narrow pad to transfer the impression to the paper. The paper is peeled off and set to dry. Because of the rubbing process, printing is only done on one side of the paper. Further reading on Wikipedia related articles and access to a video with this link:
Weekly transmission 11-2018 presents:
Before paper, 2566 BC: earliest extant papyrus, the Diary of Merer
Before paper, c. 300 BC: bamboo slips, the Book of Laozi
Two thousand years ago, invention of paper in China
175 AD: carved stone books and earliest paper and ink-rubbings
690 AD: did Wu Zetian commission 100,000 printed scrolls ?
July 751 AD: The Battle of Talas near Samarkand, a key event in the history of paper
764 AD: the Empress Kōken commissioned 1,000,000 small printed scrolls
1139 AD : the earliest extant book printed with wooden movable type
July 1377: the earliest extant book printed with movable metal type
March 1455: promotion of the Gutenberg Bible in Frankfurt
1640: the earliest extant book printed in British North America.
1725, the printing of the Chinese Imperial Encyclopaedia
WANG XUE-ZHANG (b. 1953). Three traditional ink rubbings of Luoyang carved inscriptions
Post-scritum by Theophile Bouchet: “A Westerner facing Chinese culture”
Acces au pdf
“Un tout petit forgeron à binocle”
“Lautrec, having read Poil de Carotte (Carrot Head), asked Tristan Bernard to let him meet the author, Jules Renard. Their first interview took place November 26, 1894 (Journal of J. Renard): “A very small blacksmith with binocle; a small double compartment bag; thick lips, and hands like those he draws with spreading and bony fingers, inches in a semicircle … It hurts first, by the smallness, then he is very alive, very nice, with grunts that separates his sentences and raises his lips, like the wind raises the bulges of a door. ”
Early in 1895, Lautrec researched a fox’s head to compose an ornate letter for an article of his friend in the Revue Blanche. It was Lautrec who proposed to Renard (1895) to illustrate a dozen of his Histoires naturelles, and to sell 100 copies at 25 francs each; the edition will be made by Floury in 1899, it will not be successful…” (Jean Adhémar, Toulouse-Lautrec 1951 BN exhibition catalogue)
PWT 10-2018 Toulouse-Lautrec l’Oripeau
photomontage supervised by Jean Adhemar, 1951, glass plate, 120×90 mm
Ashes and Bones Stories: Martin Bormann’s copy of Palafox and Mendoza
We may be close to a big burning of books. Not by order of a single decision maker fanatic of the Qin Emperor exemplary orders of 213 BCA or another Great Leader a few centuries later. Just a general indifference with a multiplication of governemental bands listing books as outlaw, lists issued by technocratic bureaucraties, all impatient to get rid of thousands of librarians and optimize thousands of buildings.
Let’s pick one small volume, in a strict and severe binding, probably designed by Reichsleiter Martin Bormann. The text is a rather boring German translation of Palafox and Mendoza 1650s texts against the jesuits, printed in Gothic alphabet in 1773, the year of general bannisment of the Jesuits.
The property stamp deserves our attention as the heir of Hitler could have been interested in the administration of Latin America native people, he is said to have chosen the Paraguaian missions as a post apocalyptic heaven.
This small volume, difficult to read, brings our attention to contemplate three centurie: Spain and Mexico in mid 17th, the World in 1773 and the World abter the Fall oftheReich, 1945. Last point, ironically, Martin Bormann is the decision-maker who banished the use of gothic characters in German countries.
PWT 09-2018 Ashes and Bones
Departing early February 1913, returning in the first days of May, Alberto Nunes jr was travelling with his father, Alberto Nunes and his portable camera. He recorded decisive moments of the trip, on the Union Pacific train, aboard the trans-Pacific liners SS Mongolia and Tenyo Maru — on 2nd class, with Chineses immigrants on steerage — some impressive night fire in Manila, buying toys in a Japaneses shop and the early sewing machines shops and offices. A member of the Nunes family was working for the growing Singer Company : Uncle Luis had became a Singer representative in Manila when he had visibly a terrible accident.
We can imagine the album open when the travellers were telling magical travel recollections to the young ones. Some pencil notes, verso, and ink captions, recto, supported the failing or rather transforming memories, human transmission is always in progress, opposed to the dry and perfect restitutions of machine brains.
The album contains 89 original photos by Alberto junior, printed on postcard papers, together with some printed views and a Japanese portrait with the curious note: “Geisha que attendo a mi abuelo Alberto J. Nunes en una casa del Yoshi-Wara”. (The Geisha who took care of grandfather Alberto in one of the Yoshi-Wara special houses).